Moscow Domes

By Bob Padula, Melbourne, Australia
Originally published in the Electronic DX Press

In June 2000 I undertook a three-week journey into Malaysia and Vietnam. I did not intend this to be a full-scale radio monitoring expedition, but as I had my Sangean ATS808 portable receiver with me, I couldn't resist the temptation to check out the HF bands!!

This, then, is my story, which gives an account of the sights, scenes and places I visited, supplemented by some monitoring observations in Vietnam, Eastern Malaysia, and Peninsular Malaysia.

This trip was originally planned to "do" Vietnam, as a nine-day group tour, being marketed vigorously here in Australia as "Highlights of Vietnam". However, why not (I thought) spend a few days in Malaysia before and after the Vietnam segment, to visit places I didn't get around to in previous escapades. So, a complex itinerary was produced by my local travel agency!

I will use the first person singular ("I") for some events in this story, as well as "we" where I was travelling in the company of other people. I will also use local times for reporting on scenic and adventure activities, but for monitoring I will revert to UTC!

GOODBYE AUSTRALIA. I left Melbourne at the interesting time of five minutes past midnight on Friday 2 June, on a direct flight with Malaysia Airlines to Kuala Lumpur (KL). I had my usual window seat at the back of the aircraft, and we touched down at KL around 0600, after a flying time of eight hours.

Panic..panic.. my suitcase wasn't on the carousel at KL! What had happened was that the case had been taken off the carousel by somebody unknown and placed with a heap of crew luggage!

HELLO, MALAYSIA. I had a man waiting for the long drive to downtown KL, which is an hour down the freeway. This was in the morning rush hour, but we eventually got to the Federal Hotel around 0900, an old-style building in a main street. I had left home when the temperature was about 6 degrees - in KL it was about 30 degrees!

I had booked into the Federal for two nights, and we spent Friday morning at the enormous Menara Tower, which was within "walking" distance from our hotel (about 30 minutes). It's about the same height as the twin Towers, about a block away, and those towers are claimed to be the tallest in the world. The lift whisked us to the top where we had an exhilarating 360 degree view of KL ane environs, in fact we could look out to about 150 km!

The next day we went to the former Portuguese colony of Malaka (once known as Malacca) on a day's bus tour, about two hours drive from KL. We had a late start as it was a Public Holiday, to mark the King's Birthday. We saw the procession of foreign dignitaries. I had been to Malacca about 25 years ago, but the old forts and buildings are now almost a heap of rubble, and the rest of the place is mainly high-rise tourist accommodation.

STRANDED IN THE SABAH JUNGLE! I left KL on the Sunday on the 0950 flight to Kota Kinabalu (KK), which took 2 hours 30 minutes. KK is the new capital of Sabah, formerly known as Jesselton, when it was British North Borneo, and I stayed at the Kaominsung Hotel, not far from the city centre.

I organised a few local tours in Sabah, which included a bus trip to the Kinabalu National Park. Mt Kinabalu is over 4000 m high, and it's a two day trek to get to the top and down again. It is the highest mountain in south east Asia, and there are adjacent valleys which have still not been explored by westerners. I did not do the summit trek (no time), but stayed a while at the Thermal Springs nearby and walked along the overhead suspension pathways, some 30 metres above the jungle floor.

Sabah State has one railway, which extends about 154 km from KL to the town of Tenum The last half of this line starts at the town of Beaufort, and the track then goes through spectacular jungle through the Padas River Gorge. I took the small rail-car from Beaufort to Tenum - it's like a mini-bus on rails! Fully airconditioned, with open windows!!

The track passes through steamy jungles with the Padas River on one side, and steep hills on the other. There are no roads into this area, and the communities rely on the train for getting about. There are several schools bordering the track, at which the train stopped.

The return journey was in the in a conventional four carriage train pulled by a strong diesel engine. And this is where there was a drama...half way back to Beaufort it started to rain - a real tropical torrent! The river rose, water covered the rail track, and on two occasions the crew had to remove logs and stones from the track which had washed down the side of the mountain. The crew had come prepared: they produced a gigantic steel chain from somewhere, coupled the diesel engine to the offending tree, reversed the whole train back a few metres, and dragged the log off the track, and tossed it in the river.

Gee whiz, I thought it would be plan sailing from then on. I was wrong! After a few hundred metres, we came to a grinding halt. The track ahead of us had been completely covered by an enormous landslide and rocks, mud, trees, and a rushing torrent of slush coming down the side of the mountain. We couldn't go back, and couldn't go forward! The track behind us was like a lake!

Our tour guide wasn't very concerned: "...rescue train come soon..." How soon? Where from? Out of the sky? Will we have to sleep on the floor of the train? What about food and drink? !!

So, the crew arranged for a rescue diesel train and two carriages to come from Beaufort to save us. By this time, it was dark, it was raining, and everyone (about 100 passengers - school kids, locals, business-people with brief cases, and ourselves) had to clamber down from the carriages onto the track and walk through thick, slimy yellow mud and stones to climb up into the rescue train! This mess was knee deep, and the mud got on to everything. There was a rushing stream nearby - one woman lost her shoe in that, and it was never seen again! Our rescue train of course had to reverse several km to a small siding, as the diesel engine was now at the rear, and it then uncoupled and went to the front for the rest of the trip.

When our original train stopped, there was absolutely no air movement around us: we were stranded in steamy jungle, with a huge rushing river a few metres away from us, in torrential tropical rain. The rain finally stopped and it got hotter and steamier. It was pitch black, as the train's lights had been turned off.

We finally made it back to KL at about 2100 - five hours later than expected! I wandered in to my hotel, looking like the man from Snowy River, covered in half-dried yellow mud and sat down at the restaurant for a meal. Indeed!

SANDAKAN. Another tour took me to Sandakan, the former capital of British north Borneo, about an hour's jet flight from KL. Sandakan is the place where a war memorial has been built. This is on the site of the infamous prisoner-of- war camp, where over 2000 British, Australian, and Indian troops were interned, tortured and killed by the Japanese during World War 2. Near Sandakan we visited the Orang Uti (baboons) Rehabilitation Centre. This is a large reserve, of some 4000 hectares, in the jungle where orphaned and injured Orang Uti are brought to be cared for and treated, before being released back into the jungle. They come down to be fed bananas several times a day, to be observed by scores of tourists. Or do they come to observe the tourists?!!!

KK has no beaches proper, but it has some nice islands off shore, one of which is the Tunku Abdul Rhaman National Park. I took a boat there - about 30 minutes - and spent the day on the beach, with pleasant views across the bay to KK city.

GOOD MORNING VIETNAM. On June 6, I flew from KK back to KL in a big jet, which was only about one third full, staying overnight (again!) at the Federal Hotel. The next day I flew to Ho Chin Minh City, a flight of about two hours, and was taken to the Grand Hotel, right in the centre of the city.

Ho Chi Minh City is the new name for Saigon, but the locals prefer to use the old name. We had three days there, during which we did various things, such as a boat trip on the Mekong River Delta, visited the Cu Chi wartime tunnel complex , and looked through the War Crimes Museum. That museum is not for the faint hearted, as it contains gruesome photos, mainly from American archives, of the so-called American atrocities against the Vietnamese people in the Vietnam War up to 1975. Little is portrayed of the behaviour of the Viet Cong, such as the dreadful sustained ambush attacks against the Americans. Outside the Museum are old American tanks, artillery, ordinance, gun carriers and a jet fighter plane, relics of the Vietnam War.

We went through the Reunification Hall - this is the former Presidential Palace, now used mainly for ceremonial functions, and it has been preserved and maintained as it was in 1975. That's where Russian tanks lumbered through the main gates in April 1975, marking the demise of South Vietnam and its government. The basement was President Nguyen Van Thieu's War Operations complex; it, too has been preserved and maintained. Some excellent old floor-to-ceiling maps of Saigon and South Vietnam are there, as well as a fascinating collection of radio and telephone communications gear used by the regime.

NORTH TO HANOI. The next few days were spent travelling north to Hanoi. We flew from Hanoi to Da Nang, visiting the Cham Museum there. We climbed the Marble Mountains to visit a Buddhist Temple, and cooled down in nearby China Beach, well known as the place enjoyed by American marines during the war in full view of the Viet Cong.

We stayed at Hoi An (near Da Nang), then went by minibus across the scenic Hai Van pass further north to the city of Hue. For much of this journey, the road runs parallel to the north-south railway line, and we passed the Reunification Express on the way. That train takes up to two days to go from Saigon to Hanoi!

In Hue, we visited the Imperial Citadel, and went by boat down the Perfumed River to the ancient pagodas and imperial tombs of the Nguyen Emperors.

We flew from Hue to Hanoi, and then went by mini-bus to Halong Bay, where we stayed for one night, That's the place you see in the tourist literature, where there are hundreds of little islands jutting out of the sea, covered in dense foliage, and some with caves. We spent a pleasant morning on the bay and visited one of the islands.

Halong Bay is not very far from the southern border of China, and there were multitudes of Chinese tourists there! We were told that Chinese citizens may come to Vietnam of a three-day visitor's permit, without having to secure a visa. The place was very commercial, with hundreds of Chinese people filing up stairs and paths like a procession, and then through the cave, after having been transported across the bay by an array of small boats and ferries.

In Hanoi, we visited the Mausoleum of Ho Chin Minh, which is also a Museum. There was a line of people about 1 km long waiting to get in, with the Military everywhere. No cameras, no sunglasses, no bags allowed.

We were only in Hanoi for two days. I had planned to visit the Voice of Vietnam, but I did not have the address! I hired a cyclo drier to take me to an address advised by our tour guide, but this turned out to be the French Embassy! Trying to ask directions was impossible. I couldn't find the address in the Hanoi phone book as I didn't know the Vietnamese words! So, no visit to VOV.

I wasn't impressed by Hanoi. It was choked with traffic and pollution, and the sky was a dull brown. At midday on our way out the airport runway lights were required, such was the gloom and smog.

This was the hottest time of the year, and all members of my tour group found the climatic conditions extremely trying and uncomfortable. The hotels were air-conditioned, but the air was recirculated, sterile and very dry. Outside, the temperature was around 35-40 degrees after about 0900, falling to about 25-30 degrees at night. The humidity was extreme.

THE LUCK OF THE DRAW. I drew a short straw with the tour group. This consisted of nine people from Australia: two pairs of married women in their late 30's travelling together; one older couple (the guy was 140 kg) and his mobility was not really good enough for such a trip. There was another older guy, from Melbourne, who claimed to be a school teacher; he was grossly overweight and didn't speak good English. There was also younger woman in her 20's from London, who was travelling with the group for "Work Experience" as a Trainee Tour Leader. Then there was me, who was sadly out of tune with those people.

The group was the worst I had ever encountered. Cooped up in a minibus for hours at a time with that lot almost drove me insane: they had little interest in the sights and scenes, and were only interested in buying clothes and engaging in interminable and irritating chatter about their families, their husbands back home, the next meal, and what they would buy.

I am usually an outgoing person, but I found it was simply impossible to break into that sort of group. Put frankly, their interests were not my interests. The evening meal were dreadful affairs (at least for me). These were "optional" and for part of the tour everyone went to local restaurants most nights. However, towards the end of the tour the young trainee leader and I gave them the flick, as they would spend several hours consuming enormous quantities of food and alcohol and engaging in inane conversations. They were also paranoid about Karaoke, an activity which is of absolutely no interest to me.

TRAFFIC AND ROADS! Throughout the towns and cities of Vietnam, very few people actually walk on the streets! There are zillions of motor scooters, bicycles, and cyclos, and in Saigon it was almost impossible to cross the road. A cyclo is a three-wheeled "rickshaw", which costs about 10,000 dong for 30 minutes. The traffic is horrendous, with a constant stream of vehicles and bikes. There are very few traffic lights and there didn't appear to be any "give way" rules!

The roads in Vietnam are shocking. The main north-south road between Saigon and Hanoi is mainly a potholed nightmare. There are some sections of "tollway" lasting a few km. The main roads go through the centre of towns and compete for space with local traffic.

SOCCER AT 4 AM! Local time in Vietnam is UTC+7, which allows for sunrise in June to be at 0400 local. That time is the "coolest" of the day, and the streets are occupied by Vietnamese youth playing soccer, as the roads are partially blocked off. Joggers are also prolific between 0400 and 0500. By 0500, the soccer players and joggers have dispersed, and the traffic starts, with vendors setting up their stalls in the streets and shops. By 0600, the streets are full of kids cycling to school, which start at 0700. There is a general midday shutdown siesta, which lasts from1130 to 1330.

The Vietnamese currency is the dong, and the exchange rate is about 10,000 dong to the Australian dollar. That currency is not exchangeable outside of Vietnam! Coins are not used, only worn-out paper money. There are only two Automatic Teller Machines in the whole of Vietnam - one each in Saigon and Hanoi, at Branches of the Australian and New Zealand bank!. I used the Saigon machine, which was just down the street from our hotel, disgorging millions of Dong, debited to my VISA account! We considered the currency to be "Monopoly money".

Prices in Vietnam were ridiculously low: a T-shirt was A$2, sunhat A$1, a full meal in a hotel about A$5, a can of Coke 75c,and a plastic bottle of mineral water about 50c.

What did I think of Vietnam? Not much...I don't go for open drains and rubbish lying in the streets. Neither do I appreciate the intrusions and persistence of street-kids wanting to sell me mass-produced junk and postcards. The cyclo-pedlars are the worst: they will follow you down the street, looking for a "fare", and on some occasions I almost got physical in pushing them away.

Neither were we impressed with the multitudes of beggars, many of whom were grossly disfigured, some with missing limbs, as the result of mutations caused by the defoliation agents used by the Americans in the war.

Despite what you may read in the tourist books, English is NOT understood or used in many places. It's taught in the schools, and any conversations were best done with the kids. Their opening questions were usually "Where you from...?" When told 'Australia", they invariably responded with "G'day mate..." And that was the end of it!!! Many people thought we were from "England", some not even having heard of Australia.

BACK TO MALAYSIA. By this time, all of us on the tour were quite exhausted. I flew out of Hanoi on the midday flight to KL, back to the Federal Hotel (!) for a one-night stop, then the next day flew to Langkawi Island, about one hour from KL, staying at the Langkawi Village Resort, on Tengah Beach. This was a nice place, not far from the Thai border.

I stayed there for five nights, right on the beach. I had exclusive use of a Bungalow, with palm trees just outside! I "rested" in Langkawi, but hired a bicycle for a day. This was a mountain bike with ten-speed gears, which I used to explore the area near the resort. It's OK when riding, as there is a "cool" breeze but when stopped, the heat and humidity became very oppressive We (me and the bike) did about 20 km that day, past rice fields, villages, and water buffaloes, and into the surrounding countryside.

By the way, the word "Langkawi" is Malay for "eagle" and the birds may be seen slowly circling the lagoon near the airport.

MELBOURNE AGAIN! I left Langkawi on the 1800, flight to KL on Friday 23 June, transferring at KL for the 2115 direct flight to Melbourne. I had my chosen window seat near the back - 52A - and hit Melbourne at 0630, a flight time of only seven hours and 15 minutes. The only problem with those seats near the back of the aircraft is that it takes ages to disembark from the front door, at the rear of some 350 other passengers! Leg room in that Jumbo 747 is no good for me as I am rather tall. Sometimes I chose an aisle seat, but people and cabin staff trip over me! The aircraft from Hanoi to KL was rather empty and I had a whole row of seats to myself for the three-hour flight.

I got to know KL International Airport rather well, after all those arrivals and departures! It's a huge complex, but there is a pattern to the madness, where we have to use a train to get to the International departure area.

Yeah. been there, done that, but I'm not going back to Vietnam. A lot of work is needed in the place to bring it up to minimum standards expected by Western visitors. I do, now, have a far better understanding of the terrible climatic conditions experienced by the American and Australian troops during the Vietnam War.

The well-known writer Banjo Patterson once said about Australia: "I love a sunburned country - a land of sweeping plains..." but I'll settle for that at any time! As the QANTAS song says..."I still call Australia home..." !!! (BP)

HF MONITORING LOG FROM VIETNAM AND MALAYSIA JUNE 2000 Study Period and Span: 2000 to 1400 UTC, 3200 kHz - 12000 kHz
3220 N. KOREA Pyongyang 2000-2100 Korean Central B. Station DS Korean
3250 N KOREA Pyongyang 2000-2100 R. Pyongyang ES for S. Korea
3255 S. AFRICA Meyerton 2000-2100 BBC ES English
3270 NAMIBIA Windhoek 2000-2100 Namibian B. Corp. DS English
3290 NAMIBIA Windhoek 2000-2100 Namibian B. Corp. DS English
3320 S. AFRICA Meyerton 2000-2100 R. Sonder Grense DS Afrikaans for N. Cape
3335 TAIWAN Taipei 2000-2100 Central B. System DS Variety Net for Asia
3350 N. KOREA Pyongyang 2000-2100 Korean Central B. Station DS Korean
3366 GHANA Accra 2000-2100 Ghana B. Corp DS English
4212 VIETNAM Lai Chau 1220-1230 2200-2230 Lai Chau BS DS regional outlet; some reports suggest a spur from a MF outlet also near this freq
4722 VIETNAM Play Ku 1220-1300 Gia Lai BS DS regional, not traced in local morning
4725 MYANMAR Yangon 1200-1230 R. Myanmar DS indigenous languages
4753 INDONESIA Makassar *2100-2300 RRI DS Indonesian
4760 LIBERIA Monrovia 2000-2300 ELWA DS English
4760 INDIA Port Blair *2325-0230 All India R. DS English & Hindi
4770 NIGERIA Kaduna 1950-2300* R. Nigeria DS English & Vernaculars
4770 INDIA Imphal *0030-0100 All India R. DS English & Hindi
4777 GABON Moyabi 1950-2100* RTV Gabonaise DS French & Vernaculars
4783 MALI Bamako 2200-2300 RTV Malienne DS French & Vernaculars
4785 CHINA Hohhot 1230-1300 Nei Menggu PBS DS Mongolian
4795 VIETNAM Son La 1215-1300 Son La BS DS ( not traced in mornings)
4800 LESOTHO Maseru 2000-2200* R. Lesotho DS Vernaculars & English
4800 INDIA Hyderabad *0030-0100 All India R. DS Hindi & English
4810 ARMENIA Yerevan 2000-2015* Voice of Armenia ES English
4815 BURKINA FASO Ouagadougou 1950-2300* R. Burkina DS French & Vernaculars
4815 BRAZIL Londrina 2130-2330 R. Difusora DS Portuguese
4820 CHINA Lhasa *2300-0100 Xizang AR BS DS Tibetan
4820 INDIA Calcutta *0025-0100 All India R. DS Hindi & English
4825 BRAZIL Cachorira Paulista 2030-2200 R. Cancao Nova DS Portuguese
4830 THAILAND Pathum Thani *2200-1300 R. Thailand DS Thai DS
4835 MALI Bamako 1950-2300* RTV Malienne DS French & Vernaculars
4835 AUSTRALIA Alice Springs *2130-2200 ABC DS English
4840 INDIA Mumbai *0030-0100 All India R. DS Hindi & English
4845 MALAYSIA Kajang 1950-1200 R. Malaysia DS Tamil
4850 UZBEKISTAN Tashkent 1950-0100 Uzbek R. DS Uzbek 
4850 CHINA Beijing *2100-2300 CNR-2 DS Mandarin
4860 INDIA Delhi *0025-0100 All India R. DS Hindi & English
4865 BRAZIL Londrina 2130-2330 R. Alvorada Portuguese
4875 BRAZIL Boa Vista 2130-2300 Radiodifujsora Roraima Portuguese
4880 INDIA Lucknow *0025-0100 All India R. Hindi & English
4880 BDG Dhaka 1230-1300 Bangladesh Betar Bengali
4885 BRAZIL Belem 2030-2300 R. Clube do Para Portuguese
4890 PAPUA NEW GUINEA Port Moresby *2000-2200 National B. Corp. English & Vernaculars
4895 MALAYSIA Kuching *2200-0100* *0900-1200 R. Malaysia Malay & Vernaculars
4900 CHINA Fuzhou *2100-2300 Voice of the Strait Mandarin
4910 AUSTRALIA Tennant Creek *2130-2200 ABC English
4915 GHANA Accra 1950-2300* Ghana B. Corp. English & Vernaculars
4915 KENYA Nairobi 2000-2100* Kenya B. Corp. English & Vernaculars
4925 INDONESIA Jambi *2100-0100 RRI Indonesia
4930 TURKMENIA Asgabad 2000-2100 Turkmen R. Russian
4940 INDIA Gauhati *0015-0100 All India R. Hindi & English
4950 SAO TOME Pinheira 1950-2100* VOA English & Hausa
4950 ANGOLA Luanda 2000-2300 R. Nacional Portuguese
4955 BRAZIL Rodonopolis 2200-0000 R. Clube Portuguese
4965 ZAMBIA Lusaka 1950-2300* Christian Voice English
4970 INDIA Ranchi *0025-0100 All India R. HIndi & English
4975 CHINA Jiangyang *2100-2300 Fujian Peoples' BS Mandarin
4975 BRAZIL Maranhao 2300-0000 R. Timbira Portuguese
4976 UGANDA Kampala 2000-2100* R. Uganda English & Vernaculars
4980 VENEZUELA San Cristobal 2200-0000 Ecos del Torbes Spanish
4985 BRAZIL Goiania 2000-0000 R. Brasil Central Portuguese
4990 CHINA Changsha *2100-2300 Hunan Peoples BS Mandarin
4990 INDIA Itanagar *0025-0100 All India R. Hindi & English
4992 PERU Huaraz 2255-0000 R. Ancash Spanish
5005 NEPAL Kathmandu *2315/0000-0100 R. Nepal Vernaculars
5010 CHINA Beijing *2100-2300 CNR-2 Mandarin
5010 MADAGASCAR Tananarive 2000-2100* RTV Malgasy Vernaculars
5010 INDIA Trivandrum *0020-0100 All India R. Hindi & Vernaculars
5015 TURKMENISTAN Asgabat 1950-2200 Turkmen R. Russian & Vernaculars
5020 NIGER Niamey 2100-2300 LV du Sahel Frernch & Vernaculars
5020 SOLOMON ISLANDS Honiara 1950-2000 SIBC English
5020 SRI LANKA Ekala *2300-0100 R. Sri Lanka Commercial service
5025 AUSTRALIA Katherine *2130-2200 ABC English
5025 BENIN Parakou 1950-2200 R du Benin French & Vernaculars
5030 MALAYSIA Kuching *2200-0000* *1000-1200 R Malaysia Sarawak Malay & Vernaculars
5030 CHINA Beijing *2100-2300 CNR-1 Mandarin
5035 UZBEKISTAN Tashkent 2000-2030* R Tashkent German ES
5035 VIETNAM Hanoi *2200-2300 V of Vietnam Hmong service //6165
5035 C. AFRICAN REPUBLIC Bangui 2000-2200* Radiodif. Centrafricaine French & Vernaculars
5040 CHINA Fuzhou 2200-2300 Fujian PBS Dialects & Mandarin
5040 AMERICA ?? 2300-0000 unidentified Spanish
5047 TOGO Lome 2000-2100 Radiodif. Togolaise French & Vernaculars
5050 TANZANIA Dar es Salaam 1950-2100* R. Tanzania Swahili
5050 CHINA Nanning 1000-1030 *2300-0000 Guangxi FBS Vietnamese Net
5050 CHINA Fuzhou *2055-2300 Voice of the Strait Mandarin
5060 UZBEKISTAN Tashkent 2000-2030* German ES *2330-0000 R. Tashkent Mandarin ES
5595 VIETNAM Lao Cai *2230-2300 1200-1230 Lao Cai BS Vietnamese, Vernaculars, varies 5593-5596 //6690
5875 UK Rampishm *2200-2300* BBC Indonesian
5925 VIETNAM Hanoi *2200-1600* V of Vietnam Vietnamese, relays DS
5935 CHINA Lhasa 1100-1200 Xizang PBS Mandarin
5945 AUSTRIA Moosbrunn 2200-2300 R. Austria International German
5955 CHINA Shijiazhuang 1130-1200 CNR-1 Mandarin
5965 MALAYSIA Kajang 2330-1200 R. Malaysia Malay
5965 THAILAND Nakhon Sawon *2100-0000* BBC English
5979 MALAYSIA Kota Kinabalu *0330-1230 R. Malaysia English & Vernaculars
5985 MYANMAR Yangon 1130-1300 R. Myanmar Burmese, incl language teaching 1220-1230
5985 GERMANY Lampertheim 2200-2230 R. Liberty Russian
6000 SINGAPORE Seletar *2200-1100*
*1400-1600* Singapore B. Corp Mandarin DS
6000 SINGAPORE Seletar *1100-1400* R. Singapore International Mandarin
6010 CHINA Kunming 0930-1100 CRI Mandarin
6020 VIETNAM Hanoi *2200-1600* Voice of Vietnam Vietnamese, DS
6025 PHILIPPINES Tinang *2200-2300 VOA Mandarin
6025 MALAYSIA Kajang *0400-1200 R. Malaysia *0400-0600 incl Radio 8
6030 CHINA Beijing *2000-0000 CNR-1 Mandarin
6035 CHINA Kunming 1045-1200 2345-0000 Yunnan B Station Vietnamese Net
6040 TAIWAN Taipei 2200-2330 0930-1100 Central B. System News Net Mandarin
6045 CHINA Hohhot 2230-2300 N. Menggu PBS Mandarin
6050 MALAYSIA Sibu *2200-0300* *0400-0700* *0900-1200 R. Malaysia Malay, Vernaculars
6050 NIGERIA Ibadan 2000-2300* RFC Nigeria English & Vernaculars
6055 JAPAN Tokyo 1100-1200 R. Tampa Japanese
6060 THAILAND Udorn *2130-2200* VOA Korean
6060 PHILIPPINES Tinang *2200-0000* VOA Vietnamese & English
6060 CHINA Xichang 1100-1200 Sichuan BS Mandarin
6070 THAILAND Pathum Thani *2200-1300 R. Thailand Thai DS
6075 PORTUGAL Sines 2200-2230 DW German
6080 SINGAPORE Kranji 2300-2345 BBC Thai
6085 TAIWAN Taipei 2200-2230 1100-1200 Central B. System Variety Net Mandarin,  jammed
6085 OMAN Sib *0200-0300 R. Oman Arabic
6090 CHINA Xian *2100-2230 CNR-1 Mandarin
6090 JAPAN Yamata 1100-1130 NHK Korean
6100 MALAYSIA Kajang *2200-2355* V of Malaysia Indonesian
6110 PHILIPPINES Tinang 1100-1200 VOA Mandarin
6120 SINGAPORE Kranji *2230-2325* R. Netherlands Indonesian
6130 LAOS Vientienne *2200-0300 0500-0600 Lao National R. Lao
6150 SINGAPORE Seletar *2300-1100* *1400-1600* Singapore B. Corp. English DS
6150 SINGAPORE Seletar *1100-1400* R. Singapore International English ES
6155 AUSTRIA Moosbrunn 2200-2300 R. Austria International German
6160 PHILIPPINES Tinang *1100-1200 VOA English
6165 VIETNAM Hanoi *2200-2300 Voice of Vietnam Hmong Net
6175 MALAYSIA Kajang *0255-0700 V of Islam English
6175 MALAYSIA Kajang *2200-2355* V of Malaysia Indonesian
6180 TAIWAN Taipei 2200-0000 1100-1200 Central B. System News Net Mandarin
6185 CHINA Fuzhou 1100-1200 China Huayi B Company Mandarin
6185 THAILAND Udorn *2330-0000* VOA Burmese
6190 PHILIPPINES Palauig *2230-2300 R. Veritas Asia Mandarin
6195 SINGAPORE Kranji 2200-0000 1045-1200 BBC English
6382 VIETNAM Lai Chau 2200-0000 1200-1230 Lai Chau BS Vietnamese, Vernaculars
6500 VIETNAM Cao Bang 1230-1300 Cao Bang BS Vietnamese, Vernaculars
6695 VIETNAM Lai Chau *2230-2300 1200-1230 Lai Chau BS Vietnamese, Vernaculars
7110 SINGAPORE Kranji *2200-0030* BBC English
7115 VIETNAM Hanoi *2200-1600* Voice of Vietnam Vietnamese, Vernaculars
7115 SRI LANKA Iranawila *0100-0300* VOA English
7115 THAILAND Pathum Thani *2200-1400 R. Thailand Thai DS
7125 ?? South Asia 0130-0200 ?? Asian language
7130 TAIWAN Taipei 0300-0400 RTI Amoy
7130 MALAYSIA Kuching *2330-0300* *0400-0600* R. Malaysia Vernaculars
7130 SRI LANKA Irtanawila *2200-2330* VOA Khmere & Vietnamese
7145 CYPRUS Limassol *0200-0230* BBC Pashto
7150 INDIA Imphal *0230-0400 All India R. Hindi & English
7155 VIETNAM Ha Giang *0230-0400 Ha Giang BS Vietnamese, Vernaculars
7160 SINGAPORE Kranji *2300-0000* BBC Vietnamese & Thai
7160 THAILAND Nakhon Sawan *2200-2300* BBC Mandarin
7170 SiNGAPORE Seletar *2300-1600* Singapore B. Corp Tamil DS
7180 INDIA Bhopal *0230-0400 All India R. Hindi & Tamil
7185 MYANMAR Yangon *0035-0245* R. Myanmar Byrmese & English
7190 THAILAND Udorn 2300-0000 VOA Mandarin & English
7190 SRI LANKA Ekala 0100-0300 R. Sri Lanka Vernaculars & English
7200 THAILAND Udorn *2200-0000* Voice of America Chinese & English
7210 VIETNAM Hanoi *2200-1600* Voice of Vietnam Vietnamese & Vernaculars
7210 INDIA Bhopal *0230-0400 All India R. Hindi & English
7215 PHILIPPINES TInang *2200-0100* Voice of America English
7220 CHINA Kunming 0200-0600 23030-2330 CNR-1 Mandarin
7225 PHILIPPINES Udorn *2200-0000* Voice of America Indonesian & English
7230 CHINA Xian *2000-2330 CNR-1 Mandarin
7231 INDONESIA Fak Fak 0300-0400* R. Republik Indonesia Indonesian, poor modulation
7235 SINGAPORE Seletar *2300-0900* *1200-1600* Singapore B. Corp. Malay DS
7235 SINGAPORE Seletar *0900-1200* R. Singapore International Malay ES
7245 GERMANY Lampertheim 2300-2330 R. Liberty Russian
7270 MALAYSIA Kuching *2200-0300* *0400-0700* *0900-1200 R. Malaysia DS Malay, Vernaculars 
7275 KOREA SOUTH Kimjae 0100-0400 R. Korea International ES Korean & English
7285 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 R. Taipei International Cantonese
7285 SEYCHELLES Mahe *0030-0200* FEBA Indian languages
7285 VIETNAM Hanoi 0000-0100 Voice of Vietnam Cambodian & Laotian
7285 VIETNAM Hanoi 0100-0800 Voice of Vietnam Vietnamese, Vernaculars; DS programs
7285 MADAGASCAR Tananarive 2300-2325* R. Netherlands Indonesian
7295 MALAYSIA Kajang 2000-1200 R. Malaysia DS English 
9525 INDONESIA Cimanggis *0030-0400* Voice of Indonesia ES Spanish, English, Indonesian, Arabic 
9552 INDONESIA Makassar *0045-0610 R. Republic Indonesia Indonesian
9560 SINGAPORE Seletar *1100-1400* R. Singapore International Mandarin
9580 PHILIPPINES Manila *0000-0600+ Philippines B. Service DS English & Tagalog
9590 SINGAPORE Seletar *1100-1400* R. Singapore International English
9595 JAPAN Tokyo 0600-0800 R. Tanpa Japanese
9610 TAIWAN Taipei 0300-0400 Central B. System DS News Net Mandarin
9612 INDONESIA Samarinda *0100-0610+ R. Republik Indonesia Indonesian
9665 SINGAPORE Seletar *1200-1400* R. Singapore International Indonesian
9690 TAIWAN Taipei 0000-0500 R. Taipei Intyernational ES Cantonese
9705 INDIA Delhi *0615-0630 All India R. unid service
9730 MYANMAR Yangon *0330-0615+ R. Myanmar DS English & Burmese
9730 GREECE Kavalla *0200-0400* R. Liberty Ab
9740 SINGAPORE Kranji 0600-0700 BBC English
9750 MALAYSIA Kajang *0400-0655 Voice of Islam ES English
9765 JAPAN Tokyo 0600-0800 R. Tanpa Japanese
9810 CHINA Xian 0300-0400 CNR-1 DS Mandarin
11540 TADZIKISTAN Dushanbe 2315-0030 R. Free Asia Vietnamese, jammed 
11560 KAZAKHSTAN Almaty 0015-0130 R. Free Asia Viaetnamese, jammed
11725 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 Central B. System DS News Net Mandarin
11745 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 R. Taipei International ES Hakka
11760 INDONESIA Jakarta 0400-0500 R. Nasional DS Indonesian
11775 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 Central B. System DS Variety Net Mandarin, jammed
11800 CHINA Beijing 0400-0500 CNR-2 DS Mandarin
11825 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 R. Taipei International DS Mandarin
11840 JAPAN Yamata 0500-0600 R. Japan ES English
11905 THAILAND Bang Phun 0400-0500 R. Thailand ES Thai DS relay
11915 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 R. Taipei International ES Cantonese
11935 CHINA Beijing 0400-0500 CNR-5 DS Taiwan service
11940 CAMBODIA Phnom Penh *0000-0015* National R. of Cambodia DS English
11970 TAIWAN Taipei 0400-0500 Central B. System DS Variety Net Mandarin
13720 N.MARIANAS Saipan 0000-0032 R. Free Asia Vietnamese, jammed

*xxxx- denotes sign-on; -xxxx* denotes sign-off; 
DS Domestic service; ES External service

The above listing represents the aggregated results of sample monitoring during the period Jun-02 to Jun-23, 2000, from the following locations:

Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur (hotel,) Kota Kinabalu (hotel and on the beach at Manukan Island), Langkawi (Langkawi Village Resort - bungalow and on the beach), Langkawi - in the countryside by bicycle).

Vietnam: Saigon (hotel), Hoi An (hotel), Hue (hotel), Hanoi (hotel), Ha Long (hotel).

The receiver used was the Sangean ATS808A portable, coupled to a 3 metre long-wire antenna. 

Monitoring was limited to the daytime period, corresponding generally to 4am to 8pm local time, and concentrated on frequencies below 10 MHz. The Log is intended to be a representative listing of HF activity noted, using relatively simple equipment. A high-end communications receiver with a decent antenna would undoubtedly reveal many more signals, particularly weaker ones, and would allow better assessment of fade-in and fade-out times, as well as occupancy times for those elusive Vietnamese regional outlets! The morning/afternoon monitoring from Langkawi was actually done right on the beach (Pantai Tengah = Tengah Beach) from a deck chair! The noise of the waves breaking on the shore was a problem at times...

The Radio Malaysia Sarawak broadcasts are subject to some variation, with differing schedules at weekends and during festivals and holidays. Vietnamese regional outlets are subject to continual frequency and schedule variation.

The only hard-copy reference with me was the Domestic B. Survey of the Danish Shortwave Club International. 

The costly "authoritative" annual references are quite inaccurate in their treatment of Asian domestic services, continuing to publish outdated and misleading "official" information, even though much of that material is easily secured from the public domain. Alternatively, those publishers ought to secure the services of reliable monitors/researchers "on the ground" in the region, and remunerate them appropriately. (BP)