4750 - 9995 kHz
TIMES: 0000-00400 UTC
DATES: May-01 to July 10, 2002
RECEPTION LOCALITY: Victoria, Australia
PARTICIPANTS: Bob Padula, Rob Wagner
All times are UTC
The Survey was intended to portray all HF "broadcasting service" signals monitored during the midwinter period in South eastern Australia, starting at 10 am, extending across midday and concluding at 2 pm
Solar activity was at high level during the Survey period.
The data shows actual spectrum occupancies. Observed sign-on times are denoted as *xxxx-; observed sign-off times are shown as -xxxx*
Monitoring was made from a variety of rural locations within 100 km of the Melbourne central business district, and/or at or homes in the eastern suburbs of North Ringwood and Surrey Hills.
Away-from-home locations included:
Toolangi National Park
Mt. Donna Buang
Shoreham Coastal reserve
Point Cook Coastal Park
You Yangs State Park
High Lead (Yarra Ranges Forest)
Powelltown (Learmonth Creek)
Cobbledick Ford Park
Receivers and antennas were:
National DR49 with 6 MHz dipole (home), antenna tuning unit
Sangean ATS 808A with 5 metre long-wire (portable)
Sangean 909 and Yaesu FRG100, dipoles and long-wire (home and portable), antenna tuning unit
The results show several hundred entries. It should be noted that reception conditions varied widely during the two months' study, but some general conclusions may be drawn concerning propagation:
60 metre (5 MHz) tropical band:
This band requires substantial darkness for long-haul propagation. Sunrise in Melbourne was latest during late June and early July (around 2140), and some signals on this band were audible until 0100. Propagation was from the west, across the Indian Ocean and Northern Australia.
No signals were audible between 0100 and 0400.
49 metre (6 MHz) band
Signals were audible on this band for the entire four-hour survey period, and were at their strongest for the last two weeks of June. Propagation was via the short and long-paths: the short-path was associated with signals arriving from the west,. from Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and long-path from North America, from 0000 until approximately 0115.
From 0115 onwards, the dominant propagation path was from the east, with short-path signals from the Americas, and long-path transmission from Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.
Dual-path propagation was observed between 0100 and 0200.
Signals from deep South America were observed, via short-path transmission arriving from n the south, traversing the Antarctic regions, for the full period 0000-0400, including stations in Chile, Argentina, and Brazil.
41 metre (7 MHz) band
This band was open for the full survey period. Unfortunately, the number of broadcasters using this band, which would be potentiality audible in south eastern Australia between 0000-0400 is r relatively small. There are many broadcasters in Asia operating in this band between 0000-0400 but propagation is not possible at that time.
The band is populated mainly by international broadcasters providing late night and early morning coverage into the Middle Easy and Europe. By international agreement, there are no North American broadcasters operating in the range 7100-7300. Above 7300, and up to 7580, a cluster of North American stations as observed, including several religious stations.
Between 0000 and 0200, propagation is from the west, and b between 0100 and 0400 from the east. There is a dual-path overlap between about 0100 and 0200.
31 metre (9 MHz) band
As expected,, this band was open for the full time span, and had the greatest density of transmitters. Several Brazilian broadcasters were audible from 0000 until their sign-off at 0300, or later. propagation for these Brazilian signals was over the short-path, northerly into Melbourne from the Antarctic regions.
Actual propagation paths on this band were difficult to d quantity, and consisted of short, long, dual path as well as multi-hop modes. Very few Asian signals were audible.
Many signals were from international broadcasters with night-time programming for the Americas, combined with early morning transmissions into Africa, Europe, and the Middle East.
Reception during the survey time span is now quite problematic, due to the combined effects of:
Increasing levels of power-line radiation from the Australian electricity national grid.
This radiation is propagated over all bands at all times, and is broadband in character. It r represents the total of countless devices connected to the grid, nation-wide, with the grid behaving as an enormous transmission m matrix. This noise is omni-directional, and is propagated through the ionospheric as for legitimate RF signals. It cannot be reduced, and is noted as a high-intensity background hash across the frequency spectrum. It blankets weak DX signals.
Interference from local electricity distribution network.
This noise is increasing steadily, and is radiated from overhead and underground lines. It is particularly severe where 6600 V transmission feeders (suburban streets) are co-located ion the same poles as 240 V household feeders. Ut blankets weak signals, and varies in intensity from hour to hour, and from day to day.
Noise generated in this way can be partially reduced by the use of balanced antenna feeders, where signal pick-up is limited to the active elements. Signal pick-up of noise is thus "balanced" out.
Interference from household appliances.
This interference is via direct radiation from the appliance though domestic wiring, and can be caused by appliances in properties some distance away. It includes dimmers, notion-activated security lighting, computers, VCRs, broadband cable devices, microwave ovens, dishwashers, clothes-dryers, printers, FAX machines, control circuits for heating and cooling, flat-bed scanners, electric blankets, electronic stoves, warmers, oven controllers, climate controllers, etc. etc.
Signal blocking by ozone depletion
It is well known that ozone depletion is increasing year by year, due to pollution of the upper atmosphere. The existence of the "ozone hole" is well documented in learned literature, and affects radio propagation over the disturbed regions. The "hole" is most apparent in the southern hemisphere, causing loss of signals crossing those areas. The effect of this it to allow much greater levels of ultra-violet radiation to penetrate the ionosphere, in turn leading to greater absorption of weaker signals on the lower frequency bands.
Signal blocking by industrial pollution
The atmosphere above suburban and urban regions is n now intensely polluted by industrial contamination, and continues to rise year by year. It is commonly known as "smog". This has the effect of increasing absorption in the lower layers of the ionosphere, blocking weak signals.
We have been producing these mid-winter
spectrum surveys for a great many years, but it is obvious that
noise levels, signal blocking, pollution, and ozone depletion
are problems affecting long-distance radio propagation, especially
for daytime reception on the lower frequency bands.
Some of these problems can be mitigated by the listener - others cannot!
Each winter, we note fewer and fewer signals across the midday period on the lower frequency bands, and home-based reception is now more difficult.
This year's survey revealed a few surprises, mainly the Brazilian signals on 9 MHz, as some of the Brazilian channels have been cleared of international broadcasters. The 6 MHz region was rather disappointing, with very little exotic DX available.
There was a lot of fun in working on the survey, but we should remember that the variability of propagation introduces some degree of excitement into the project. The small Sangean receivers worked well away from home, with relatively small antennas of five metres length.
Whilst most our work was done independently of each other, on Tuesday July 9 we went on a joint venture to the High Lead area south of Powelltown, 100 km east of Melbourne, in the timber cutting region of the Yarra Ranges Forest. We had the Sangean 909, the Sangean 808A., and the Yaesu FRG 100, with about 20 metres of long wire. Even though the daytime peak had passed, there were a few signals audible on 6 MHz between 0100m and 0200. Even several km from the nearest house, power-line noise was observed.
The Sangean 808A was the best performer of the three radios we had. The "test" signals were RCI-Sackville on 5960, DW 6075, and ARD-Munich 6085 - audible on the 808A but barely detectable on the other sets.
We left our antenna in the gum trees for a future expedition, as we doubt if anyone will see it hanging up there, apart from the possums who might want to sit on it!
Enjoy the photos....!
Here are the results of our monitoring. The country column denotes the transmitter country. Transmitter sites are as advised by the administrations.
|5865||Greece||V. of Greece||Kavalla||0000||0400||Greek|
|5930||Slovak Republic||Slovak Radio||Rimatska Sobota||*0100||0230*||English Slovak French|
|5935||USA||WWCR||Nashville||0050||0215||English (University Network)|
|5960||Canada||Radio Canada International||Sackville||*0100||0200||English|
|5960||Canada||Radio Monte Carlo
||Sackville||*0300||0320*||Arabic (NHK-Sackville co-channel!)|
|5960||Turkey||Voice of Turkey||Cakirlar||0000||0100||Turkish|
|6005||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamabalad||*0030||0100||English|
|6035||UAE||Adventist Radio||Abu Dhabi||*0000||0100*||English|
|6045||France||R. France International||Issoudin||*0300||0400||Russian French|
|6045||Zimbabwe||Zambia B. Corp||Harare||0000||0030||English Vernaculars
|6055||Spain||R. Exterior de Espana||Noblejas||0200||0400||Spanish English|
|6060||Argentina||R. Argentina de Exterior||Buenos Aires||0000||0200||Portuguese|
|6075||Antigua||Deutsche Welle||St. Johns||*0200||0400||German|
|6105||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0200||0400||Russian|
|6155||United Kingdom||R. TV Eireaan||Rampisham||*0130||0200*||English|
|6175||Canada||V. of Vietnam||Sackville||*0100||0400||English Viet Spanish
|6190||Slovak Republic||R. Slovakia Int||Rimatska Sobota||*0100||0230*||English Slovak French|
|6200||Czech Republic||R. Prague||Litomysl||*0100||0230*||English Czech Spanish|
|7130||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Sirjan||*0230||0330*||Pashto|
|7135||France||R. France International||Issoudin||*0300||0400||French|
|7150||Ukraine||R. Kiev International||Simferopol||*0200||0400||Ukrainian English|
|7155||United Kingdom||R. Free Europe||Wooferton||*0200||0400||Russian|
|7165||India||All India Radio||Delhi||*0045||0130*||Burmese|
|7170||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0000||0200*||Russian Kazakh|
|7175||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0300||0400||Turkmenian|
|7190||Uzbekistan||R. Tashkent||Tashkent||*0100||0330*||English Pashto Uzbek
|7220||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||0000||0100*||Russian|
|7220||Germany||R. Free Europe||Holzkirchen||*0300||0400||Russian|
|7220||Greece||R. Free Europe||Kavalla||*0200||0300*||Russian|
|7245||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0200||0300*||Russian|
|7260||Vanuatu||R. Vanuatu||Vila||0300||0400||English and local
|7270||Turkey||V. of Turkey||Emirlir||*0300||0400*||English|
|7275||Morocco||R. Free Europe||Briech||*0200||0300||Arabic|
|7280||France||R. France International||Issoudin||*0300||0400||Russian|
|7295||Germany||R. Free Europe||Biblis||*0300||0400||Belarussian|
|7295||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0200||0300*||Turmenian|
|7295||Greece||R. Free Europe||Kavalla||0000||0200*||Kyrgyz|
|7300||Russia||V. of Russia||Moscow||0200||0300||Russian|
|7305||Vatican||Vatican Radio||SMG||0030||0400||English Portuguese French Spanish|
|7330||Russia||V. of Russia||Moscow||0000||0300*||Spanish Russian|
|7345||Czech Republic||R. Prague||Litomysl||*0000||0330*||Czech English Spanish|
|7475||Greece||V. of Greece||Avlis||0230||0330||Greek|
|7490||Norway||R. Norway and R. Denmark||Kvitsoy||*0300||0400||Nor and Dan|
|7510||USA||KTBN||Santa Ana CA||0130||0200||English|
|7535||USA||WSHB||Cypress Creek SC||0230||0330||English|
|9350||Tajikistan||R. Free Asia||Dushanbe||*0100||0200*||Uighur|
|9355||USA||WEWN||Birmingham, AL||0000||0300||English Spanish|
|9365||Armenia||R. Free Asia||Yerevan||*0100||0300*||Uighur Tibetan|
|9400||Bulgaria||R. Bulgaria||Plovdiv||0000||0300*||Bulgarian English French|
|9410||United Kingdom||BBC ||Skelton||*0200||0400||English|
|9420||Greece||V. of Greece||Avlis||0000||0400||Greek|
|9425||France||R. France International||Issoudin||*0300||0400*||French|
|9425||Germany||Democratic Voice of Burma||Julich||0000||0030*||Burmese|
|9425||India||All India Radio||Delhi||0000||0040*||Hindi (test national service)|
|9430||USA||WSHB||Cyprus Creek SC||0000||0300||English|
|9440||Slovak Republic||R. Slovakia International;||Rimatska Sobota||*0100||0230*||English Slovak French|
|9450||Russia||V. of Russia||Moscow||0000||0200*||Spanish|
|9460||Turkey||V. of Turkey||Cakirlar||0000||0400||Turkish|
|9475||Egypt||R. Cairo||Abis||*0100||0330||Spanish English|
|9480||Russia||V. of Russia||St. Petersburg||0000||0300*||Spanish Russian|
|9490||Canada||R. Sweden||Sackville||0000||0400||Swedish English|
|9500||Bulgaria||R. Bulgaria||Plovdiv||0000||0400||Russian Bulgarian Spanish Eng|
|9505||Cuba||R. Habana Cuba||Havana||0300||0400||Spanish|
|9505||Sri Lanka||VOA||Iranawela||0100||0300||Pashto Dari|
|9515||Brazil||R. Novas da Paz||Curitiba||0130||0300||Portuguese|
|9515||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0030||0230*||Spanish|
|9525||Indonesia||V. of Indonesia||Cimanggis||*0030||0300||English Spanish Indonesian|
|9525||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0130||0230*||Urdu|
|9530||Brazil||R. Nova Visao||Santa Maria||0000||0300||Portuguese|
|9540||Spain||R. Exterior de Espana||Noblejas||0000||0400||Spanish|
|9545||Germany||Deutsche Welle||Wertachtal||0000||0400||German Russian|
|9550||Cuba||R. Habana Cuba||Havana||0000||0400||Spanish French Creole|
|9552||Indonesia||R. Republik Indonesia||Ujung Pandang||0000||0100*||Indonesian|
|9555||Turkey||V. of Turkey||Emiler||*0100||0200*||Uzbek|
|9560||Canada||China Radio International||Sackville||*0300||0400*||Spanish|
|9560||Canada||R. Korea International||Sackville||*0200||0300*||English|
|9560||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||0000||0030*||French|
|9560||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0130||0230*||Spanish|
|9570||Hungary||R. Budapest||Jazbereny||*0130||0300*||Hungarian English
|9570||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0030||0130*||Bengali|
|9570||Romania||R. Romania International||Tiganesti||0300||0400||Spanish|
|9575||Morocco||R. Medi||Nador||0000||0400||Arabic French|
|9580||Cuba||China Radio International||Havana||*0100||0200*||English|
|9590||N. Antilles||R. Netherlands||Bonaire||*0330||0400||Dutch|
|9595||India||All India Radio||Delhi||*0015||0215||Urdu|
|9605||Vatican||Vatican Radio||SMG||*0030||0400||Port Spanish French English|
|9610||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0030||0130*||English|
|9610||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0330||0400||ME lang|
|9615||Brazil||R. Cultura||Sao Paulo||0100||0300||Portuguese|
|9615||Sri Lanka||Deutsche Welle||Trincomalee||*0100||0150*||Bengali|
|9620||Spain||R. Exterior de Espana||Noblejas||0000||0400||Spanish|
|9635||Morocco||R. Free Europe||Briesch||*0300||0400||Bulgarian|
|9640||Antigua||Deutsche Welle||St. Johns||*0300||0345*||English|
|9640||Ukraine||R. Kiev International||Kiev||0130||0300||Ukrainian|
|9645||Brazil||R. Bandeirantes||Sao Paulo||0000||0300*||Portuguese|
|9650||Vatican||Vatican Radio||SMG||*0030||0200*||S. Asian langs|
|9655||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Sirjan||*0030||0230*||Spanish|
|9660||Vatican||Vatican Radio||SMG||*0230||0400||Eur langs|
|9665||Morocco||R. Free Europe||Briesch||*0100||0200*||Kazakh|
|9665||Russia||V. of Russia||Kch||0000||0400||Spanish English|
|9675||Brazil||R. Cancao Nova||Cachoeira Paulista||0000||0300*||Portuguese|
|9690||Spain||China Radio International||Noblejas||*0200||0400*||Spanish|
|9690||Thailand||R. Thailand||Udon Than||*0000||0030*||English|
|9705||India||All India Radio||Delhi||0000||0045*||English|
|9705||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Mashkad||0100||0230*||Arabic|
|9710||Morocco||R. Free Europe||Briesch||*0300||0400||Ukrainian|
|9715||Greece||R. Free Europe||Kavalla||*0000||0200*||Kyrgyz|
|9725||Russia||V. of Russia||Armavir||*0100||0300*||English|
|9730||Greece||R. Free Europe||Kavalla||*0100||0300||unid|
|9755||Canada||R. Monte Carlo||Sackville||*0300||0320*||Arabic|
|9760||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0100||0400||Tartir Bashkir|
|9770||Sri Lanka||R. Sri Lanka||Colombo||*0030||0300||English|
|9785||Germany||R. Free Europe||Lampertheim||*0200||0400||Uzbek|
|9790||Canada||China Radio International||Sackville||*0100||0200*||English|
|9790||France||R. France International||Issoudin||0300||0400||French|
|9790||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0230||0400||Arabic|
|9795||United Kingdom||R. Wales International||Rampisham||*0200||0230*||English|
|9800||F. Guyana||R. France International||Montsinery||*0100||0200||Spanish French|
|9810||China||China Radio International||Xian||0000||0100||Chinese|
|9810||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0130||0230*||Spanish|
|9820||Austria||Adventist Radio||Moosbrunn||*0200||0300||English Urdu|
|9820||Cuba||R. Habana Cuba||Havana||0000||0200||English|
|9825||Ascension ||BBC||English Bay||*0000||0300*||English|
|9825||France||R. France International||Issoudin||*0300||0400||French|
|9830||Russia||V. of Russia||Armavir||0000||0200*||Spanish|
|9835||India||All India Radio||Delhi||0000||0045*||Tamil|
|9835||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Kamalabad||*0030||0130*||English|
||Rome||0000||0330*||various to Am|
|9845||N. Antilles||R. Netherlands||Bonaire||0000||0025*||English|
|9845||N. Antilles||R. Netherlands||Bonaire||*0130||0325*||Spanish|
|9850||Philippines||R. Veritas Asia||Palauig||0000||0030*||Asian languages|
|9860||Russia||V. of Russia||Moscow||0000||0200*||Spanish|
|9865||Morocco||R. Free Europe||Briech||*0100||0400||Azerbaijan|
|9870||Austria||R. Austria International||Moosbrunn||0000||0200*||German English|
|9870||Czech Republic||R. Prague||Lytomsyl||*0230||0330*||Czech English|
|9890||Iran||V. of Islamic Rep. of Iran||Sirjan||*0030||0230*||Bengali and Pashto|
|9895||Russia||V. of Russia||Kaliningrad||*0200||0400||Russian|
|9900||Egypt||R. Cairo||Abu Zaabal||0000||0400||Arabic|
|9910||India||All India Radio||Delhi||*0000||0045*||Tamil|
|9925||Germany||Voice of Croatia
|9930||Norway||R. Norway and R. Denmark||Kvitsoy||*0000||0100*||Norwegian and Danish|
|9945||Tajikistan||V. of Russia||Dushanbe||*0100||0200*||Spanish|
|9950||India||All India Radio||Delhi||*0100||0130*||Burmese|
|9950||India||All India Radio||Delhi||0000||0045*||English|
|9960||Norway||R. Norway and R. Denmark||Sveio||0300||0400||Norwegian Danish|
|9965||Armenia||V. of Armenia||Yerevan||*0200||0400||Armenian English Spanish|
|9965||Armenia||V. of Russia||Yerevan||0000||0200*||Spanish English|
|9970||Belgium||R. Vlaanderen International||Wavre||*0300||0400||Dutch|
|9975||Norway||R. Norway and R. Denmark||Kvitsoy||*0100||0300*||Norwegian Danish|
|9985||Norway||R. Norway and R. Denmark||Kvitsoy||0000||0100||Norwegian Danish|